Comprendre diagnostic disque HDD sous Linux (smartctl)

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beatus
Messages : 28
Inscription : 13 avr. 2023 15:46

Comprendre diagnostic disque HDD sous Linux (smartctl)

par beatus »

Hello,
Je découvre le sujet traitant des diag disque à la page suivante:
https://www.malekal.com/smartctl-verifi ... des-linux/
j'ai donc procédé a une analyse d'un disque dont j'ai un doute sur son fonctionnement; voici donc ci-dessous le retour des commandes:
Est-il possible d'avoir un avis d'expert ?
---
[root@ts-Latitude-E4310:/home/ts# smartctl -l error /dev/sda
smartctl 7.2 2020-12-30 r5155 [x86_64-linux-5.15.0-89-generic] (local build)
Copyright (C) 2002-20, Bruce Allen, Christian Franke, www.smartmontools.org

=== START OF READ SMART DATA SECTION ===
SMART Error Log Version: 1
No Errors Logged
_____________________________________________________




root@ts-Latitude-E4310:/home/ts# smartctl -l selftest /dev/sda | more
smartctl 7.2 2020-12-30 r5155 [x86_64-linux-5.15.0-89-generic] (local build)
Copyright (C) 2002-20, Bruce Allen, Christian Franke, www.smartmontools.org

=== START OF READ SMART DATA SECTION ===
SMART Self-test log structure revision number 1
Num Test_Description Status Remaining LifeTime(hours) LBA_of_first_error
# 1 Extended offline Completed: read failure 50% 6339 309097567
# 2 Short offline Completed without error 00% 6339
Malekal_morte
Messages : 115593
Inscription : 10 sept. 2005 13:57

Re: diagnostic disque hdd sous linux

par Malekal_morte »

Salut,

Dans la première commande, tu affiches les erreurs loguées, il n'y en a pas.
Dans la seconde commande, tu lances un test interne.
Première règle élémentaire de sécurité : on réfléchit puis on clic et pas l'inverse - Les fichiers/programmes c'est comme les bonbons, quand ça vient d'un inconnu, on n'accepte pas !
Comment protéger son PC des virus
Windows 11 : Compatibilité, Configuration minimale requise, télécharger ISO et installer Windows 11

Comment demander de l'aide sur le forum
Evaluer le site malekal.com
Partagez malekal.com : n'hésitez pas à partager les articles qui vous plaisent sur la page Facebook du site.
beatus
Messages : 28
Inscription : 13 avr. 2023 15:46

Re: diagnostic disque hdd sous linux

par beatus »

Bonjour Malekal_morte
Que doit-on conclure du message :
1 Extended offline Completed: read failure 50% 6339 309097567"
Est-l nécessaire d'appliquer un traitement curatif à ce HDD ?
Et si oui avec quel utilitaire linux ?
ASAP
Malekal_morte
Messages : 115593
Inscription : 10 sept. 2005 13:57

Re: diagnostic disque hdd sous linux

par Malekal_morte »

Completed: read failure 50%
C'est pas terrible, car il ne parvient à lire que 50% des secteurs.
Tu n'as pas d'erreur de lecture des données ?
Tu as des sauvegardes ?

que donne :

Code : Tout sélectionner

smartctl -a /dev/sda
smartctl -A /dev/sda
Première règle élémentaire de sécurité : on réfléchit puis on clic et pas l'inverse - Les fichiers/programmes c'est comme les bonbons, quand ça vient d'un inconnu, on n'accepte pas !
Comment protéger son PC des virus
Windows 11 : Compatibilité, Configuration minimale requise, télécharger ISO et installer Windows 11

Comment demander de l'aide sur le forum
Evaluer le site malekal.com
Partagez malekal.com : n'hésitez pas à partager les articles qui vous plaisent sur la page Facebook du site.
beatus
Messages : 28
Inscription : 13 avr. 2023 15:46

Re: diagnostic disque hdd sous linux

par beatus »

Oui sauvegarde ok

smartctl -a /dev/sda :

Code : Tout sélectionner

root@ts-Latitude-E4310:/home/ts# smartctl -a /dev/sda
smartctl 7.2 2020-12-30 r5155 [x86_64-linux-5.15.0-89-generic] (local build)
Copyright (C) 2002-20, Bruce Allen, Christian Franke, www.smartmontools.org

=== START OF INFORMATION SECTION ===
Model Family:     SAMSUNG SpinPoint M7
Device Model:     SAMSUNG HM250HI
Serial Number:    S20TJ9BZ924887
LU WWN Device Id: 5 0024e9 2036bbdfd
Firmware Version: 2AC101C4
User Capacity:    250 059 350 016 bytes [250 GB]
Sector Size:      512 bytes logical/physical
Form Factor:      2.5 inches
Device is:        In smartctl database [for details use: -P show]
ATA Version is:   ATA8-ACS T13/1699-D revision 6
SATA Version is:  SATA 2.6, 3.0 Gb/s
Local Time is:    Tue Nov 28 14:28:03 2023 CET
SMART support is: Available - device has SMART capability.
SMART support is: Enabled

=== START OF READ SMART DATA SECTION ===
SMART overall-health self-assessment test result: PASSED

General SMART Values:
Offline data collection status:  (0x00)	Offline data collection activity
					was never started.
					Auto Offline Data Collection: Disabled.
Self-test execution status:      ( 117)	The previous self-test completed having
					the read element of the test failed.
Total time to complete Offline 
data collection: 		( 4140) seconds.
Offline data collection
capabilities: 			 (0x5b) SMART execute Offline immediate.
					Auto Offline data collection on/off support.
					Suspend Offline collection upon new
					command.
					Offline surface scan supported.
					Self-test supported.
					No Conveyance Self-test supported.
					Selective Self-test supported.
SMART capabilities:            (0x0003)	Saves SMART data before entering
					power-saving mode.
					Supports SMART auto save timer.
Error logging capability:        (0x01)	Error logging supported.
					General Purpose Logging supported.
Short self-test routine 
recommended polling time: 	 (   2) minutes.
Extended self-test routine
recommended polling time: 	 (  69) minutes.
SCT capabilities: 	       (0x003f)	SCT Status supported.
					SCT Error Recovery Control supported.
					SCT Feature Control supported.
					SCT Data Table supported.

SMART Attributes Data Structure revision number: 16
Vendor Specific SMART Attributes with Thresholds:
ID# ATTRIBUTE_NAME          FLAG     VALUE WORST THRESH TYPE      UPDATED  WHEN_FAILED RAW_VALUE
  1 Raw_Read_Error_Rate     0x002f   100   100   051    Pre-fail  Always       -       115
  2 Throughput_Performance  0x0026   252   252   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
  3 Spin_Up_Time            0x0023   093   093   025    Pre-fail  Always       -       2330
  4 Start_Stop_Count        0x0032   088   088   000    Old_age   Always       -       12628
  5 Reallocated_Sector_Ct   0x0033   252   252   010    Pre-fail  Always       -       0
  7 Seek_Error_Rate         0x002e   252   252   051    Old_age   Always       -       0
  8 Seek_Time_Performance   0x0024   252   252   015    Old_age   Offline      -       0
  9 Power_On_Hours          0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       6361
 10 Spin_Retry_Count        0x0032   252   252   051    Old_age   Always       -       0
 11 Calibration_Retry_Count 0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       50
 12 Power_Cycle_Count       0x0032   098   098   000    Old_age   Always       -       2128
191 G-Sense_Error_Rate      0x0022   023   023   000    Old_age   Always       -       783392
192 Power-Off_Retract_Count 0x0022   252   252   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
194 Temperature_Celsius     0x0002   061   046   000    Old_age   Always       -       39 (Min/Max 17/54)
195 Hardware_ECC_Recovered  0x003a   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
196 Reallocated_Event_Count 0x0032   252   252   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
197 Current_Pending_Sector  0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       1
198 Offline_Uncorrectable   0x0030   252   252   000    Old_age   Offline      -       0
199 UDMA_CRC_Error_Count    0x0036   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       1
200 Multi_Zone_Error_Rate   0x002a   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       638
223 Load_Retry_Count        0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       50
225 Load_Cycle_Count        0x0032   068   068   000    Old_age   Always       -       326400

SMART Error Log Version: 1
No Errors Logged

SMART Self-test log structure revision number 1
Num  Test_Description    Status                  Remaining  LifeTime(hours)  LBA_of_first_error
# 1  Extended offline    Completed: read failure       50%      6339         309097567
# 2  Short offline       Completed without error       00%      6339         -

SMART Selective self-test log data structure revision number 0
Note: revision number not 1 implies that no selective self-test has ever been run
 SPAN  MIN_LBA  MAX_LBA  CURRENT_TEST_STATUS
    1        0        0  Completed_read_failure [50% left] (0-65535)
    2        0        0  Not_testing
    3        0        0  Not_testing
    4        0        0  Not_testing
    5        0        0  Not_testing
Selective self-test flags (0x0):
  After scanning selected spans, do NOT read-scan remainder of disk.
If Selective self-test is pending on power-up, resume after 0 minute delay.

smartctl -a /dev/sda :

Code : Tout sélectionner

root@ts-Latitude-E4310:/home/ts# smartctl -a /dev/sda
smartctl 7.2 2020-12-30 r5155 [x86_64-linux-5.15.0-89-generic] (local build)
Copyright (C) 2002-20, Bruce Allen, Christian Franke, www.smartmontools.org

=== START OF INFORMATION SECTION ===
Model Family:     SAMSUNG SpinPoint M7
Device Model:     SAMSUNG HM250HI
Serial Number:    S20TJ9BZ924887
LU WWN Device Id: 5 0024e9 2036bbdfd
Firmware Version: 2AC101C4
User Capacity:    250 059 350 016 bytes [250 GB]
Sector Size:      512 bytes logical/physical
Form Factor:      2.5 inches
Device is:        In smartctl database [for details use: -P show]
ATA Version is:   ATA8-ACS T13/1699-D revision 6
SATA Version is:  SATA 2.6, 3.0 Gb/s
Local Time is:    Tue Nov 28 14:37:15 2023 CET
SMART support is: Available - device has SMART capability.
SMART support is: Enabled

=== START OF READ SMART DATA SECTION ===
SMART overall-health self-assessment test result: PASSED

General SMART Values:
Offline data collection status:  (0x00)	Offline data collection activity
					was never started.
					Auto Offline Data Collection: Disabled.
Self-test execution status:      ( 117)	The previous self-test completed having
					the read element of the test failed.
Total time to complete Offline 
data collection: 		( 4140) seconds.
Offline data collection
capabilities: 			 (0x5b) SMART execute Offline immediate.
					Auto Offline data collection on/off support.
					Suspend Offline collection upon new
					command.
					Offline surface scan supported.
					Self-test supported.
					No Conveyance Self-test supported.
					Selective Self-test supported.
SMART capabilities:            (0x0003)	Saves SMART data before entering
					power-saving mode.
					Supports SMART auto save timer.
Error logging capability:        (0x01)	Error logging supported.
					General Purpose Logging supported.
Short self-test routine 
recommended polling time: 	 (   2) minutes.
Extended self-test routine
recommended polling time: 	 (  69) minutes.
SCT capabilities: 	       (0x003f)	SCT Status supported.
					SCT Error Recovery Control supported.
					SCT Feature Control supported.
					SCT Data Table supported.

SMART Attributes Data Structure revision number: 16
Vendor Specific SMART Attributes with Thresholds:
ID# ATTRIBUTE_NAME          FLAG     VALUE WORST THRESH TYPE      UPDATED  WHEN_FAILED RAW_VALUE
  1 Raw_Read_Error_Rate     0x002f   100   100   051    Pre-fail  Always       -       115
  2 Throughput_Performance  0x0026   252   252   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
  3 Spin_Up_Time            0x0023   093   093   025    Pre-fail  Always       -       2330
  4 Start_Stop_Count        0x0032   088   088   000    Old_age   Always       -       12628
  5 Reallocated_Sector_Ct   0x0033   252   252   010    Pre-fail  Always       -       0
  7 Seek_Error_Rate         0x002e   252   252   051    Old_age   Always       -       0
  8 Seek_Time_Performance   0x0024   252   252   015    Old_age   Offline      -       0
  9 Power_On_Hours          0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       6361
 10 Spin_Retry_Count        0x0032   252   252   051    Old_age   Always       -       0
 11 Calibration_Retry_Count 0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       50
 12 Power_Cycle_Count       0x0032   098   098   000    Old_age   Always       -       2128
191 G-Sense_Error_Rate      0x0022   023   023   000    Old_age   Always       -       783392
192 Power-Off_Retract_Count 0x0022   252   252   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
194 Temperature_Celsius     0x0002   063   046   000    Old_age   Always       -       37 (Min/Max 17/54)
195 Hardware_ECC_Recovered  0x003a   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
196 Reallocated_Event_Count 0x0032   252   252   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
197 Current_Pending_Sector  0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       1
198 Offline_Uncorrectable   0x0030   252   252   000    Old_age   Offline      -       0
199 UDMA_CRC_Error_Count    0x0036   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       1
200 Multi_Zone_Error_Rate   0x002a   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       638
223 Load_Retry_Count        0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       50
225 Load_Cycle_Count        0x0032   068   068   000    Old_age   Always       -       326400

SMART Error Log Version: 1
No Errors Logged

SMART Self-test log structure revision number 1
Num  Test_Description    Status                  Remaining  LifeTime(hours)  LBA_of_first_error
# 1  Extended offline    Completed: read failure       50%      6339         309097567
# 2  Short offline       Completed without error       00%      6339         -

SMART Selective self-test log data structure revision number 0
Note: revision number not 1 implies that no selective self-test has ever been run
 SPAN  MIN_LBA  MAX_LBA  CURRENT_TEST_STATUS
    1        0        0  Completed_read_failure [50% left] (0-65535)
    2        0        0  Not_testing
    3        0        0  Not_testing
    4        0        0  Not_testing
    5        0        0  Not_testing
Selective self-test flags (0x0):
  After scanning selected spans, do NOT read-scan remainder of disk.
If Selective self-test is pending on power-up, resume after 0 minute delay.

root@ts-Latitude-E4310:/home/ts# 
root@ts-Latitude-E4310:/home/ts# smartctl -a /dev/sda
smartctl 7.2 2020-12-30 r5155 [x86_64-linux-5.15.0-89-generic] (local build)
Copyright (C) 2002-20, Bruce Allen, Christian Franke, www.smartmontools.org

=== START OF INFORMATION SECTION ===
Model Family:     SAMSUNG SpinPoint M7
Device Model:     SAMSUNG HM250HI
Serial Number:    S20TJ9BZ924887
LU WWN Device Id: 5 0024e9 2036bbdfd
Firmware Version: 2AC101C4
User Capacity:    250 059 350 016 bytes [250 GB]
Sector Size:      512 bytes logical/physical
Form Factor:      2.5 inches
Device is:        In smartctl database [for details use: -P show]
ATA Version is:   ATA8-ACS T13/1699-D revision 6
SATA Version is:  SATA 2.6, 3.0 Gb/s
Local Time is:    Tue Nov 28 14:39:05 2023 CET
SMART support is: Available - device has SMART capability.
SMART support is: Enabled

=== START OF READ SMART DATA SECTION ===
SMART overall-health self-assessment test result: PASSED

General SMART Values:
Offline data collection status:  (0x00)	Offline data collection activity
					was never started.
					Auto Offline Data Collection: Disabled.
Self-test execution status:      ( 117)	The previous self-test completed having
					the read element of the test failed.
Total time to complete Offline 
data collection: 		( 4140) seconds.
Offline data collection
capabilities: 			 (0x5b) SMART execute Offline immediate.
					Auto Offline data collection on/off support.
					Suspend Offline collection upon new
					command.
					Offline surface scan supported.
					Self-test supported.
					No Conveyance Self-test supported.
					Selective Self-test supported.
SMART capabilities:            (0x0003)	Saves SMART data before entering
					power-saving mode.
					Supports SMART auto save timer.
Error logging capability:        (0x01)	Error logging supported.
					General Purpose Logging supported.
Short self-test routine 
recommended polling time: 	 (   2) minutes.
Extended self-test routine
recommended polling time: 	 (  69) minutes.
SCT capabilities: 	       (0x003f)	SCT Status supported.
					SCT Error Recovery Control supported.
					SCT Feature Control supported.
					SCT Data Table supported.

SMART Attributes Data Structure revision number: 16
Vendor Specific SMART Attributes with Thresholds:
ID# ATTRIBUTE_NAME          FLAG     VALUE WORST THRESH TYPE      UPDATED  WHEN_FAILED RAW_VALUE
  1 Raw_Read_Error_Rate     0x002f   100   100   051    Pre-fail  Always       -       115
  2 Throughput_Performance  0x0026   252   252   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
  3 Spin_Up_Time            0x0023   093   093   025    Pre-fail  Always       -       2330
  4 Start_Stop_Count        0x0032   088   088   000    Old_age   Always       -       12628
  5 Reallocated_Sector_Ct   0x0033   252   252   010    Pre-fail  Always       -       0
  7 Seek_Error_Rate         0x002e   252   252   051    Old_age   Always       -       0
  8 Seek_Time_Performance   0x0024   252   252   015    Old_age   Offline      -       0
  9 Power_On_Hours          0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       6361
 10 Spin_Retry_Count        0x0032   252   252   051    Old_age   Always       -       0
 11 Calibration_Retry_Count 0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       50
 12 Power_Cycle_Count       0x0032   098   098   000    Old_age   Always       -       2128
191 G-Sense_Error_Rate      0x0022   023   023   000    Old_age   Always       -       783392
192 Power-Off_Retract_Count 0x0022   252   252   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
194 Temperature_Celsius     0x0002   063   046   000    Old_age   Always       -       37 (Min/Max 17/54)
195 Hardware_ECC_Recovered  0x003a   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
196 Reallocated_Event_Count 0x0032   252   252   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
197 Current_Pending_Sector  0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       1
198 Offline_Uncorrectable   0x0030   252   252   000    Old_age   Offline      -       0
199 UDMA_CRC_Error_Count    0x0036   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       1
200 Multi_Zone_Error_Rate   0x002a   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       638
223 Load_Retry_Count        0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       50
225 Load_Cycle_Count        0x0032   068   068   000    Old_age   Always       -       326400

SMART Error Log Version: 1
No Errors Logged

SMART Self-test log structure revision number 1
Num  Test_Description    Status                  Remaining  LifeTime(hours)  LBA_of_first_error
# 1  Extended offline    Completed: read failure       50%      6339         309097567
# 2  Short offline       Completed without error       00%      6339         -

SMART Selective self-test log data structure revision number 0
Note: revision number not 1 implies that no selective self-test has ever been run
 SPAN  MIN_LBA  MAX_LBA  CURRENT_TEST_STATUS
    1        0        0  Completed_read_failure [50% left] (0-65535)
    2        0        0  Not_testing
    3        0        0  Not_testing
    4        0        0  Not_testing
    5        0        0  Not_testing
Selective self-test flags (0x0):
  After scanning selected spans, do NOT read-scan remainder of disk.
If Selective self-test is pending on power-up, resume after 0 minute delay.
[/i]
____________________________________________
[i]root@ts-Latitude-E4310:/home/ts# smartctl -A /dev/sda
smartctl 7.2 2020-12-30 r5155 [x86_64-linux-5.15.0-89-generic] (local build)
Copyright (C) 2002-20, Bruce Allen, Christian Franke, www.smartmontools.org

=== START OF READ SMART DATA SECTION ===
SMART Attributes Data Structure revision number: 16
Vendor Specific SMART Attributes with Thresholds:
ID# ATTRIBUTE_NAME          FLAG     VALUE WORST THRESH TYPE      UPDATED  WHEN_FAILED RAW_VALUE
  1 Raw_Read_Error_Rate     0x002f   100   100   051    Pre-fail  Always       -       115
  2 Throughput_Performance  0x0026   252   252   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
  3 Spin_Up_Time            0x0023   093   093   025    Pre-fail  Always       -       2330
  4 Start_Stop_Count        0x0032   088   088   000    Old_age   Always       -       12628
  5 Reallocated_Sector_Ct   0x0033   252   252   010    Pre-fail  Always       -       0
  7 Seek_Error_Rate         0x002e   252   252   051    Old_age   Always       -       0
  8 Seek_Time_Performance   0x0024   252   252   015    Old_age   Offline      -       0
  9 Power_On_Hours          0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       6361
 10 Spin_Retry_Count        0x0032   252   252   051    Old_age   Always       -       0
 11 Calibration_Retry_Count 0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       50
 12 Power_Cycle_Count       0x0032   098   098   000    Old_age   Always       -       2128
191 G-Sense_Error_Rate      0x0022   023   023   000    Old_age   Always       -       783392
192 Power-Off_Retract_Count 0x0022   252   252   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
194 Temperature_Celsius     0x0002   063   046   000    Old_age   Always       -       37 (Min/Max 17/54)
195 Hardware_ECC_Recovered  0x003a   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
196 Reallocated_Event_Count 0x0032   252   252   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
197 Current_Pending_Sector  0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       1
198 Offline_Uncorrectable   0x0030   252   252   000    Old_age   Offline      -       0
199 UDMA_CRC_Error_Count    0x0036   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       1
200 Multi_Zone_Error_Rate   0x002a   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       638
223 Load_Retry_Count        0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       50
225 Load_Cycle_Count        0x0032   068   068   000    Old_age   Always       -       326400
Malekal_morte
Messages : 115593
Inscription : 10 sept. 2005 13:57

Re: Comprendre diagnostic disque HDD sous Linux (smartctl)

par Malekal_morte »

D'expériences, je dirai que vu qu'il n'y a pas d'erreur, tout va bien.
Si tu n'as pas de problème de fonctionnement (plantage, lenteur, etc) alors tout va bien.
Première règle élémentaire de sécurité : on réfléchit puis on clic et pas l'inverse - Les fichiers/programmes c'est comme les bonbons, quand ça vient d'un inconnu, on n'accepte pas !
Comment protéger son PC des virus
Windows 11 : Compatibilité, Configuration minimale requise, télécharger ISO et installer Windows 11

Comment demander de l'aide sur le forum
Evaluer le site malekal.com
Partagez malekal.com : n'hésitez pas à partager les articles qui vous plaisent sur la page Facebook du site.
beatus
Messages : 28
Inscription : 13 avr. 2023 15:46

Re: Comprendre diagnostic disque HDD sous Linux (smartctl)

par beatus »

Des nouvelles bien rassurantes.
Bien à toi . :-)
beatus
Messages : 28
Inscription : 13 avr. 2023 15:46

Re: Comprendre diagnostic disque HDD sous Linux (smartctl)

par beatus »

Bonjour Malekal_morte
J'ai lu le dossier concernant le comparatif des logiciels de restauration de données.
Or je souhaite récupérer des données sur une clef USB qui a fait l'objet d'un "clean" sous DISKPART.
Est-il possible de me conseiller un soft (payant ou gratuit) de restauration le plus efficace dans cette situation précise ?
Excellente année 2024 à malekal.com !
Malekal_morte
Messages : 115593
Inscription : 10 sept. 2005 13:57

Re: Comprendre diagnostic disque HDD sous Linux (smartctl)

par Malekal_morte »

Première règle élémentaire de sécurité : on réfléchit puis on clic et pas l'inverse - Les fichiers/programmes c'est comme les bonbons, quand ça vient d'un inconnu, on n'accepte pas !
Comment protéger son PC des virus
Windows 11 : Compatibilité, Configuration minimale requise, télécharger ISO et installer Windows 11

Comment demander de l'aide sur le forum
Evaluer le site malekal.com
Partagez malekal.com : n'hésitez pas à partager les articles qui vous plaisent sur la page Facebook du site.
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